leonardo da vinci : the codex leicester

what machine can be used to ram piles into the ground?

a man, weighted down with ballast, climbs up a ladder. at the top, he places his feet in stirrups that are connected to a rope that runs over a winch and is anchored to a pile-driver. the pile-driver lying on the ground is raised upward when the man jumps downward. once on the ground, the man climbs out of the stirrups and the pile-driver rushes down and strikes a pile planted in the ground. this procedure can be repeated at will. the force of the impact can be increased by using a heavier pile-driver and correspondingly more men in the procedure.






  1. why does something move?
  2. how can flowing water consume its momentum when it encounters an obstruction?
  3. why are the waves of descending rivers slower than the water flow of the river itself?
  4. why does a body move when something strikes it?
  5. under what conditions can a person on a see-saw not jump up?
  6. why does waves look like crescents when viewed from the side?
  7. what happens to the waves when water crashed into an obstacle?
  8. what effects do the slope of the obstruction and the angle of impact have?
  9. why doesn't viscous water flow continually throungh a bent pipe?
  10. does the weight of water vary according to how one changes the slope of a pipe filled with water?
  11. how can one see that movement separates from its cause?
  12. where does the wave break?
  13. what causes cyclones?
  14. can a special dam influence the impact of the water?
  15. what must an especially strong dam look like?
  16. how can one simulate the collapse of a wave?
  17. how does air, once it is immersed, escape the water?
  18. what machine can be used to ram piles into the ground?

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