leonardo da vinci : the codex leicester

how does air, once it is immersed, escape the water?

air that because of falling water becomes submerged under water winds its way with special movements towards the water’s surface, for air, as an element lighter than water, is compelled to rise above water. because the water lying directly over the air puts more weight on the air than does the water to the side of the air, and because the air seeks the path of least resistance, a spiral-shaped upward movement occurs. when it reaches the surface, the air emerges in the shape of a hemisphere that is covered by a thin layer of water. this happens because the air expands the water’s surface completely and evenly, so that this layer of water possesses a perfect inner cohesiveness.






  1. why does something move?
  2. how can flowing water consume its momentum when it encounters an obstruction?
  3. why are the waves of descending rivers slower than the water flow of the river itself?
  4. why does a body move when something strikes it?
  5. under what conditions can a person on a see-saw not jump up?
  6. why does waves look like crescents when viewed from the side?
  7. what happens to the waves when water crashed into an obstacle?
  8. what effects do the slope of the obstruction and the angle of impact have?
  9. why doesn't viscous water flow continually throungh a bent pipe?
  10. does the weight of water vary according to how one changes the slope of a pipe filled with water?
  11. how can one see that movement separates from its cause?
  12. where does the wave break?
  13. what causes cyclones?
  14. can a special dam influence the impact of the water?
  15. what must an especially strong dam look like?
  16. how can one simulate the collapse of a wave?
  17. how does air, once it is immersed, escape the water?
  18. what machine can be used to ram piles into the ground?

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